INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

 

Professor: Minhaaj Rehman

Office: DMS Building, IUB Bahawalpur.

Email: minhaaj@gmail.com

www.minhaaj.com/psychology

Password: mrehman

Contact hours:
Monday - Friday 9 AM to 5 PM or by appointment.

LECTURE 1
LECTURE 2
LECTURE 3
LECTURE 4
LECTURE 5
LECTURE 6
  • https://b-ok.org/book/1213984/850ea1

  • An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests or subtests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. Historically, IQ was a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months. The resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. For modern IQ tests, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less. By this definition, approximately two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, and 2.5 percent

  • Fluid and Crystal IQ

LECTURE 7

Reading List:

  • http://personality-project.org/

  • Personality is the coherent patterning of affect, cognition, and desires (goals) as they lead to behavior. To study personality is to study how people feel, how they think, what they want, and finally, what they do. That people differ from each other in all four of these domains is obvious. How and why they differ is less clear and is an important part of the study of personality. It is the coherent patterning over time and space of feelings, thoughts, desires and actions that we identify as personality. Personality psychology addresses the questions of shared human nature, dimensions of individual differences and unique patterns of individuals. Research in personality ranges from analyses of genetic codes and studies of biological systems to the study of sexual, social, ethnic, and cultural bases of thought, feelings, and behavior. Personality research includes studies of cognitive abilities, interpersonal styles, and emotional reactivity. Methods range from laboratory experiments to longitudinal field studies and include data reduction techniques such as factor analysis and principal components analysis, as well as structural modeling and multi-level modeling procedures. Measurement issues of most importance are those of reliability and stability of individual differences.

  • Idiographic and Nomothetic Approach

LECTURE 8

  • The id, ego, and super-ego are the three distinct, interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche. The three agents are theoretical constructs that describe the activities and interactions of the mental life of a person. In the ego psychology model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual desires; the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role; and the ego is the organized, realistic agent that mediates, between the instinctual desires of the id and the critical super-ego; Freud explained that: The functional importance of the ego is manifested in the fact that, normally, control over the approaches to motility devolves upon it. Thus, in its relation to the id, [the ego] is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse; with this difference, that the rider tries to do so with his own strength, while the ego uses borrowed forces

  • Savant syndrome, hints at dormant potential within us all. The key research, on-going, is how to tap those hidden skills without brain injury or disease. Additionally, behind each of these enormously talented persons, is always some family member, friend or tutor which teaches us much about the power of love, determination, persistence, faith and hope. Overall, this research on savant syndrome can propel us further along than we have ever been in better understanding, and appreciating, both the brain and human potential.

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vi6t03MRv0Y

LECTURE 9
LECTURE 9
  • CBT is based on the combination of the basic principles from behavioral and cognitive psychology.

  • It is different from historical approaches to psychotherapy, such as the psychoanalytic approach where the therapist looks for the unconscious meaning behind the behaviors and then formulates a diagnosis.

  • CBT is a "problem-focused" and "action-oriented" form of therapy, meaning it is used to treat specific problems related to a diagnosed mental disorder. The therapist's role is to assist the client in finding and practicing effective strategies to address the identified goals and decrease symptoms of the disorder. CBT is based on the belief that thought distortions and maladaptive behaviors play a role in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders, and that symptoms and associated distress can be reduced by teaching new information-processing skills and coping mechanisms

  • When compared to psychoactive medications, review studies have found CBT alone to be as effective for treating less severe forms of depression and anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tics, substance abuse, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder. Some research suggests that CBT is most effective when combined with medication for treating mental disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder. In addition, CBT is recommended as the first line of treatment for the majority of psychological disorders in children and adolescents, including aggression and conduct disorder

  • Therapists or computer-based programs use CBT techniques to help people challenge their patterns and beliefs and replace errors in thinking, known as cognitive distortions, such as "overgeneralizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives and catastrophizing" with "more realistic and effective thoughts, thus decreasing emotional distress and self-defeating behavior” Cognitive distortions can be either a pseudo-discrimination belief or an over-generalization of something. CBT techniques may also be used to help individuals take a more open, mindful, and aware posture toward cognitive distortions so as to diminish their impact

One etiological theory of depression is Aaron T. Beck's cognitive theory of depression. His theory states that depressed people think the way they do because their thinking is biased towards negative interpretations. According to this theory, depressed people acquire a negative schema of the world in childhood and adolescence as an effect of stressful life events, and the negative schema is activated later

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